Vitamins and minerals are key components that the body need and should be included in your daily diet. Six vitamins and fifteen minerals are required to complete diverse biochemical activities. As a result, maintaining excellent health requires a well-balanced diet.
Any imbalance in the diet can result in insufficient or excessive consumption of these vitamins and minerals, and even excessive intake of vitamins and minerals can be hazardous and lead to mineral toxicity, while insufficient quantities can result in deficiency illnesses.
Vitamins are organic chemicals found in fruits and vegetables that help the body grow and function normally. These vitamins have the ability to be both fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K, for example, are fat-soluble, whereas vitamins C and B complex are water-soluble. Because the human body cannot generate vitamins on its own, it is critical to eat a well-balanced diet to receive them from outside sources.
All of these vitamins are found in elemental form in a variety of foods, such as acids, flavonoids, and other substances. Ascorbic acid, for example, contains vitamin C. Thiamine, for example, is a type of vitamin B1.
Different vitamins play various roles in the body:
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with a daily dose of 900mcg for adult men and 700mcg for adult women. It can be found in foods in the form of retinol. This is due to the fact that the body transforms vitamin A into retinol and retinal, which are active forms that are easily absorbed.
A study found that vitamin A promotes cell growth, eyesight, immunological function, and foetal development. Vitamin A’s principal function is to improve vision and eye health.
It offers important chemicals required by the eye cells. They aid in the protection of the cornea and the health of the cone cells. Color vision is controlled by cone cells in the eyes.
Vitamin A-rich foods include carrots, lettuce, broccoli, cod liver oil, and sweet potatoes.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin as well. Men should get 90mg of vitamin D per day, while women should get 75mg. Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the maintenance of strong bones and teeth.
It’s a fascinating vitamin. Its synthesis begins when the skin is exposed to sunlight. According to study, vitamin D improves calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium absorption.
Vitamin D also serves to regulate the cell life cycle; when the life cycle is complete, it promotes cell death, which is necessary to avoid malignant growth.
Vitamin D can be found in eggs, milk, mushrooms, and salmon fish oil. Daily sun exposure also aids in the production of vitamin D in the body.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin as well. This vitamin’s daily recommended consumption for adults is 15mg. According to one study, vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells and membranes from oxidative damage produced by free radicals.
Oxidative stress occurs when free radicals bond to the oxygen molecule, depriving healthy cells of oxygen. Vitamin E aids in the elimination of free radicals. As a result, it maintains the health of skin cells and encourages the growth of healthy hair.
In addition to acting as an antioxidant, it is engaged in a variety of physiological processes such as gene expression, cognitive performance, inflammatory regulation, and so on.
Vitamin E is abundant in tomatoes, olives, bell peppers, almonds, sunflower seeds, spinach, shellfish, and peas.
According to research, vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin with a recommended daily consumption of 90mcg for women and 120mcg for males. Vitamin K is necessary for the body because it aids in the activation of clotting factors.
For example, blood platelets aid in clotting the blood to prevent excessive bleeding after a cut or injury. This clot must be initiated by vitamin K.
Vitamin K is abundant in cabbage, liver, collards, kale, eggs, milk, and sprouts.
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin with a daily dose of 90mg for adult men and 75mg for adult women. It is necessary for the body since it is a component of the immune system and aids in the production of white blood cells, which are responsible for the body’s immunological response.
It is also anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. Antioxidant capabilities aid in the fight against free radicals and the improvement of cell health.
According to one study, vitamin C also aids in the creation of collagen in the body, which is essential for keeping skin elasticity. The finest sources of vitamin C are strawberries, papayas, lemons, oranges, limes, and other citrus fruits.
Vitamin B complex consists of the following vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (cobalamin). Each of these vital vitamins helps to maintain overall biological processes.
Daily intake recommendation:
Vitamin B complex promotes cell health, red blood cell proliferation, good brain function, appropriate nerve activity, and cardiovascular health. Furthermore, vitamin B complex is necessary for pregnant women since it promotes good foetal growth and brain development. In men, it raises testosterone levels.
Biotin and folic acid are critical vitamins for nail and hair growth, while B6 is required for the nervous system and RBC to operate properly.
Sunflower seeds, spinach, poultry, avocado, salmon, and lentils are all high in vitamin B complex.
The human body requires fifteen vital nutrients to function properly. They are classified as major or trace minerals based on the amount of each mineral required by the human body.
Calcium is a substantial mineral and an important electrolyte. It is essential for the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth; it also aids in blood clotting, muscular contractions, nerve impulses, and so on.
Calcium is the fundamental skeletal structure in our bodies, including our bones, and it also makes up the enamel of our teeth, which protects the underlying nerves. We can contract and relax our body muscles and perform numerous tasks as a result of calcium influx in the muscle cells.
100-1200mg is the recommended daily dose for both men and women. Calcium-rich foods include cheese, milk, chia seeds, sardines, yoghurt, and fortified foods such as soy and cereal.
Iodine is a trace mineral that is essential for thyroid synthesis. As a result, it has a direct impact on thyroid hormones.
That is why it is critical to consume adequate levels of iodine in order to maintain optimal thyroid function. Furthermore, iodine is involved in neurodevelopment during pregnancy, boosting cognitive function and birth weight.
Iodine intake of 150mcg per day is suggested for both men and women. Dairy, eggs, shrimp, whole grains, and iodised salt are all good sources of iodine.
Chlorine is an important mineral because it functions as an electrolyte and controls numerous fluids in the body. For example, it aids in the regulation of osmotic pressure and the maintenance of water balance.
It also aids in the regulation of the body’s pH levels and offers an acidic medium for the activation of gastric enzymes, which aid in digesting. Chloride also aids in the activation of salivary amylase.
Table salt is the principal source of chloride, and the recommended daily intake for both men and women is 2.3g.
Iron is a trace mineral that comes in two forms: heme-iron, which is found in animal meals, and non-heme iron, which is found in plant foods. It is also in charge of producing haemoglobin, which is an important component of red blood cells since it transports oxygen to the body’s healthy cells.
Men should consume 8mg of iron per day, while women should consume 8-18mg. Females between the ages of 19 and 51 require more iron. Iron is abundant in dairy, spinach, kale, soybeans, red meat, and eggs.
Chromium is a trace mineral required by the body in small levels that aids in the breakdown and absorption of carbs, lipids, and proteins. Furthermore, chromium improves the action of insulin in the body and can help manage blood sugar levels.
Chromium can be found in beef, broccoli, eggs, fish, oysters, poultry, and wheat germ. Men should consume 30-35mcg of chromium per day, while women should consume 25-20mcg.
Cobalt is another trace mineral that aids in vitamin B12 absorption and processing. It also aids in the treatment of anaemia and certain viral illnesses. The body requires cobalt to restore the outer protective membrane of the nerve cell. Cobalt is also involved in the production of haemoglobin.
Cobalt is abundant in beef, liver, fish, yeast, shellfish, and fortified nutritional foods.
Copper is another trace mineral that the body requires for a variety of critical tasks. Copper, for example, is required for cell formation and iron absorption in the body. It is also in charge of heartbeat, blood pressure, and the development of connective tissue, bones, and internal organs.
Copper intake of 900mcg per day is advised for both men and women. Copper is abundant in cocoa, organ meat, seafood, soybeans, and whole grains.
Magnesium is an important mineral that serves as an electrolyte. It is the human body’s fourth most prevalent mineral. It is involved in several biological activities, aids in the formation of DNA, and is responsible for muscular contractions.
Magnesium coordinates with calcium and is necessary for causing the heart muscles to contract (producing heartbeat), just as magnesium helps the muscles rest by serving as a calcium blocker.
Men should consume 400-420mg of magnesium per day, while women should consume 310-320mg. Almonds, chocolate, leafy green vegetables, and pumpkin seeds can help you achieve your daily magnesium requirements.
It is one of the lesser-known minerals, although it is crucial. Molybdenum is included in a variety of essential enzymes. These enzymes are required for activities such as iron metabolism. It functions as a cofactor, assisting in the expression of enzymes such as oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime.
Molybdenum intake should be 45mcg per day for both men and women. Molybdenum can be found in lentils, dry peas, lima beans, soybeans, eggs, carrots, peanuts, sesame seeds, and fennel.
Phosphorus is a major mineral that is found in considerable minerals in bones. Phosphorus is essential for energy storage and transfer, overall body growth and development, and tissue cell repair.
It is also a component of DNA and RNA and conveys genetic information that identifies the protein synthesis activity. Furthermore, phosphorus serves as the foundation for the majority of biological substances in the body, including enzymes, hormones, and even haemoglobin.
Both men and women should consume 700mg of phosphorus every day. Phosphorus is also found in beef, cashews, almonds, cheese, milk, salmon, yoghurt, and lentils.
Potassium is another vital mineral that also serves as an electrolyte. It works with sodium and chloride to maintain fluid balance in the body and to regulate blood pressure.
As a result, a rich potassium diet is recommended to manage high blood pressure since it counteracts sodium and reduces blood pressure.
Men should consume 3400mg of potassium per day, while women should consume 2600mg. Potassium-rich foods include legumes, beef, potatoes, seafood, and spinach.
Although selenium is a trace mineral, it is an essential component of many antioxidant enzymes and proteins. It also boosts the immune system, acts as an antioxidant, and fights free radicals to avoid oxidative damage. It also has anti-inflammatory qualities and aids in the maintenance of a healthy metabolism.
For both men and women, the daily recommended selenium consumption is 35mcg. Selenium-rich foods include Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, sardines, eggs, and spinach.
Sodium is one of the most important nutrients that the body need in considerable quantities. It collaborates with potassium to control material exchange in and out of cells, maintain water balance, and aid in nerve activity.
As a result, sodium plays an important part in nerve and muscle function as well as blood pressure regulation.
Both men and women should consume 2400mg of sodium each day. Salt is the most common source of sodium in humans, however beets, seafood, dairy, sweet potato, and yoghurt are other sodium-rich foods.
Zinc is a trace mineral that is essential for the immune system. For example, it aids in the battle against inflammation during a typical cold. Zinc also aids in wound healing and cell division. Zinc also aids in the expression of genes and the expression of certain enzymes.
Men should consume 11mg of zinc per day, while women should consume only 8mg. Zinc-rich foods include oysters, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, chickpeas, and shellfish.
Manganese is a trace mineral that the body requires in minute amounts and is essential for enzyme expression. It is found in mitochondrial enzymes, where it protects against oxidative damage. It is also required for fatty acid and glucose metabolism.
Manganese is advised at 2.3mg per day for men and 1.8mg per day for women. Magnesium can also be obtained through whole grains, legumes, nuts, potatoes, and shellfish.
Because the human body cannot generate vital vitamins and minerals on its own, they must be obtained from outside sources and consumed as part of a well-balanced diet.
It would be beneficial if you ingested all of the essential vitamins and minerals in the prescribed amounts. An inadequate diet deficient in particular nutrients can result in a variety of deficiency disorders. Some of these disorders can have long-term consequences for the body.
Beriberi is a condition in which the muscles become severely weak and there is significant weight loss. Acute deficit can potentially result in cardiac arrest and paralysis.
It is caused by a lack of vitamin B1. It is critical to consume vitamin B1-rich foods and avoid alcohol, which inhibits vitamin B1 absorption. To avoid acquiring this illness, people who use one diuretic should take vitamin B1 supplements.
Vitamin D insufficiency can lead to rickets, a disorder in which the bones deteriorate, particularly near the joints. It can also result in tooth decay.
Rickets are more likely among malnourished youngsters who eat a poor diet. It can have serious long-term repercussions on the health and interfere with daily life. As a result, taking vitamin D supplements is critical to avoiding vitamin D insufficiency.
Scurvy is a condition that causes bleeding gums, skin patches, and joint swelling. This is linked to a vitamin C deficit. As a result, there is a persistent sense of weakness, stiffness in the arms and legs, and the gums bleed quickly, making them more susceptible to various gum illnesses.
This disorder is treatable, and you can improve it by eating plenty of vitamin C-rich foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, and antioxidant-rich foods.
Night blindness is a type of vision impairment in which the person has poor eyesight in low light or at night. Some types of night blindness can be treated, while others cannot.
It is caused by a vitamin A deficiency. It is required for the conversion of nerve impulses into pictures in the retina. It can also be caused by pre-existing eye diseases such as cataracts, poor eyesight, or a hereditary abnormality.
To avoid vision problems, it is critical to have a vitamin A-rich diet.
Iron is an important component of haemoglobin because it aids in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body’s healthy cells. Iron deficiency can result in anaemia, a condition in which the blood does not carry enough oxygen to the cells.
It causes tissue damage and cell death. If you do not take care of this condition, it can become serious. Iron-rich foods include red meat, spinach, and poultry.
Iodine is a necessary element for the body. It is in charge of embryonic brain development as well as thyroid production. Iodine shortage can damage the thyroid gland, causing it to produce either too little or too much hormone.
As the thyroid gland swells up during this disease, it can be perceived as a hump in the neck. As a result, it is critical to control iodine levels and keep them within the RDI range.
Toxicity of Minerals
Mineral toxicity is a condition in which the mineral concentration in the body is extremely high and outside of the permissible range.
A spike in sodium content in the bloodstream can result in abnormal blood pressure, seizures, and severe vomiting.
Potassium is another mineral that, if not consumed in the correct amount, can cause difficulties. High potassium levels, for example, can cause muscle weakness, vomiting, and negative effects on the kidney and heart.
Wilson’s illness is a hereditary ailment caused by copper buildup in the liver, brain, and other organs. In this condition, there is a golden-brown discoloured ring around the eye known as Kayser-Fleischer rings that may be seen with bare eyes.
Summary – Facts About Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals act as a source of energy for a healthy body. There are 15 necessary minerals and six important vitamins that must be present in order for the body to function properly and execute various biological activities.
These vitamins and minerals build up your body and even help to improve your immune system so you can fight off infections. In general, a well-balanced diet meets all of the body’s nutritional needs.
On the other hand, vitamin and mineral supplements can be taken on the go. Remember to check with your doctor before taking any vitamin or mineral supplements. It is also critical to take them in the right levels, as a lack or excess intake can lead to a variety of issues.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q. What are the most important minerals?
A. There are 15 major minerals, of which 8 are trace minerals required in small amounts and seven are required in substantial numbers. Calcium, chloride, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium are all vital minerals that must be consumed in large quantities.
Q. Is it true that all vitamins are required?
A. The human body need six important vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, whilst B complex and C are water-soluble. Both groups are required by the organism for diverse purposes and to assist with various metabolic functions.
Q. What are minerals’ four primary functions?
A. Minerals serve a variety of purposes. 1. Oxygen transportation 2. Hormone Regulation 3. Muscle and Nerve Function 4. Immune Health These are some of the major functions that are influenced by various minerals.
Q: How many minerals are essential?
A. There are 15 minerals that are required. The vital minerals required by the body are calcium, chloride, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc.
Q. What disorders are caused by a deficiency of vitamins and minerals?
A. Vitamin deficiency causes disorders such as night blindness, scurvy, rickets, and hyperkeratosis. Furthermore, mineral shortage can lead to hypertension, weak bones, and a weakened immune system, to name a few problems.
Q. What is the significance of the six necessary nutrients?
A. The body requires all nutrients in order to function properly. These nutrients control a variety of body functions such as blood pressure, hormones, cell formation, and coagulation.
Q. What is the most important mineral in the body?
A. Calcium is the most plentiful and necessary mineral in the human body. It is found in bones, teeth, and nails, and it is necessary for blood clotting, muscle contraction, and cell signalling.
Q: What are the ten most important minerals?
A. The ten most important minerals are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, and magnesium.